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The Myths of Memory Repression and Recovery

"The hunt for sex abuse memories is the con of the '90s. If you don't want to take responsibility for your problems, what better way than to blame it on an alter? I've learned now to be responsible. But it was a road through hell and back again. I feel humiliated and stupid to have been so gullible. I hear "inner child" now and I cringe. What's the point of dwelling in the past? I have a hard time with the concept of repressed memories in general. I have a pretty good memory-I can remember my teachers' names. Who cares? It's like you're digging and you're digging, when it's all a lie. And I think this is taking away from dealing with actual sexual abuse. I know gals who really were sexually abused, and they have always remembered it, maybe not every detail, but why would they want to? Life does go on, and they don't obsess over it. " -- Nell Charette, retractor, in Victims of Memory

  1. Myth: It is a fact that victims of long-term, violent childhood abuse commonly repress the memory of each and every incident from conscious awareness after it occurs so that they have no awareness the rest of the time of having been abused, and then recall the abuse only years or decades later.

  2. Reality: This is a theory, not a fact; if a mental health provider states this is a fact, they have committed malpractice and the client will have an open-and-shut case if he or she takes legal action as a result. Moreover, "Despite widespread clinical support and popular belief that memories can be 'blocked out' by the mind, no empirical evidence exists to support either repression or dissociation." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 302
     

  3. Myth: "The ordinary response to atrocities is to banish them from consciousness." -- Judith Herman, M.D., Trauma and Recovery

  4. Reality: "Numerous studies in children (Terr, 1983; Malmquist, 1986; Pynoos & Nader, 1989) and adults (Leopold & Dillon, 1963) have shown that psychologically traumatic events are vividly though not always accurately recalled and are frequently followed by intrusive recollections in one form or another. The problem following most forms of trauma is an inability to forget, rather than a complete expulsion from awareness, and amnesia for violent events is rare." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 300
     

  5. Myth: Memory operates like a videotape. Everything is stored permanently in the "unconscious mind" and can be accurately replayed.

  6. Reality: "The assumption, however, that a process analogous to a multichannel videotape recorder inside the head records all sensory impressions and stores them in their pristine form indefinitely is not consistent with research findings or with current theories of memory." -- American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, "Scientific Status of Refreshing Recollection by the Use of Hypnosis" (Journal of the American Medical Association, 5 April 1985, Vol. 253, No. 13, pp. 1918-1923)
     

  7. Myth: "Something in the neighborhood of 60 percent of all incest victims don't remember the sexual abuse for many years after the fact."-- John Bradshaw, "Incest: When You Wonder If It Happened To You," Lear's, Aug. 92, p. 43

  8. Reality: "Most people who were sexually abused as children remember all or part of what happened to them." -- Interim Report of the American Psychological Association Working Group on Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse
     

  9. Myth: Memory recovery therapy is safe and effective.
  10. Myth: Reliving abuse in detail ("abreaction") is a required step on the path to healing.

  11. Reality: "Loftus (1997) reviewed 30 cases selected at random from 670 claims submitted to the Washington Victims Compensation Program. Twenty-six had 'recovered' a memory of abuse through therapy. All 30 were still in therapy after three years, 18 for more than five years. After treatment 20 were suicidal compared with three before treatment began, 11 were hospitalised (cf. two before treatment), eight engaged in self-mutilation (cf. one before) and marriage break-up occurred in almost all. It appears that in these cases, recovery and abreaction had serious adverse effects." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 303
     

  12. Myth: There is evidence for the spontaneous, complete "massive repression" of traumatic memories from conscious awareness followed by accurate delayed recall.

  13. Reality: "No evidence exists for the repression and recovery of verified, severely traumatic events, and their role in symptom formation has yet to be proved. There is also a striking absence in the literature of well-corroborated cases of such repressed memories recovered through psychotherapy. Given the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse, even if only a small proportion are repressed and only some of them are subsequently recovered, there should be a significant number of corroborated cases. In fact there is none (Pope & Hudson, 1995; Pendergrast, 1996)." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: Implications for clinical practice", p. 303
     

  14. Myth: Hypnosis can "reverse amnesia" or "recover memories."

  15. Reality: "Contrary to what is generally believed by the public, recollections obtained during hypnosis not only fail to be more accurate but actually appear to be generally less reliable than nonhypnotic recall." -- "Scientific Status of Refreshing Recollection by the Use of Hypnosis," American Medical Associationís Council on Scientific Affairs, 1985

    "There is no evidence that the use of consciousness-altering techniques, such as drug-mediated interviews or hypnosis, can reveal or accurately elaborate factual information about any past experiences including childhood sexual abuse." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  16. Myth: If a person shows a certain number or combination of symptoms, that person must have been abused as a child.
  17. Myth: There are checklists which can be used to diagnose previous sexual abuse.

  18. Reality: "In children and adolescents, symptoms and behaviour patterns may alert the clinician to the possibility of current sexual abuse, but these are no more than indicators for suspicion. Previous sexual abuse in the absence of memories of these events cannot be diagnosed through a checklist of symptoms." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  19. Myth: Adults are normally capable of remembering abuse or other events from early infancy.

  20. Reality: "Few people seem able to remember events which took place before about the age of three years. This 'infantile amnesia' (Campbell & Speak, 1972; Campbell et al, 1974; Coulter et al, 1976) depends on delayed maturation of the brain, which has been demonstrated in other species of mammal. Episodic memory does not develop until after age four years and most people have limited memories before about five or six years of age (Hudston & Nelson, 1986)." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 298
     

  21. Myth: Techniques such as sodium amytal interviews, hypnosis, age regression, guided imagery, dream interpretation, journaling, or the diagnosis of 'body memories' can be used to accurately recover forgotten or "repressed" memories.

  22. Reality: "Psychiatrists are advised to avoid engaging in any 'memory recovery techniques' which are based upon the expectation of past sexual abuse of which the patient has no memory. Such 'memory recovery techniques' may include drug-mediated interviews, hypnosis, regression therapies, guided imagery, 'body memories', literal dream interpretation and journaling. There is no evidence that the use of consciousness-altering techniques, such as drug-mediated interviews or hypnosis, can reveal or accurately elaborate factual information about any past experiences including childhood sexual abuse. Techniques of regression therapy including 'age regression' and hypnotic regression are of unproven effectiveness." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  23. Myth: "You must believe that your client was sexually abused, even if she sometimes doubts it herself .... Joining a client in doubt would be like joining a suicidal client in her belief that suicide is the best way out." -- The Courage to Heal, First Edition, p.347

  24. Reality: "The psychiatrist should normally explore his or her doubts with the patient about the accuracy of recovered memories of previously totally forgotten sexual abuse. " -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997

    "Psychiatrists should maintain an empathic, non-judgmental, neutral stance towards reported memories of sexual abuse. As in the treatment of all patients, care must be taken to avoid prejudging the cause of the patient's difficulties, or the veracity of the patient's reports. A strong prior belief by the psychiatrist that sexual abuse, or other factors, are or are not the cause of the patient's problems is likely to interfere with appropriate assessment and treatment." -- The American Psychiatric Association Board Statement On Memories Of Sexual Abuse
     

  25. Myth: Whether a memory is "historical truth" does not matter; only a client's "narrative truth" is important.

  26. Reality: "Some clinicians believe, as did Freud, that historical truth is not important to therapy. It may be the case that abreaction of an imagined but believed-in event is effective in relieving symptoms, and clinical examples of 'reincarnation therapy' have been described. However the effects of distorted truth should not be overlooked. The damage done to families if the accusations are untrue is immense. Moreover, it is not only families that are damaged by mistakes in this area. Patients who are mistakenly diagnosed as having been abused, frequently end as mental health casualties (Loftus, 1997). Where apparent improvement is based upon a false belief, there seems a serious possibility of further mental distress." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 304
     

  27. Myth: A therapist could never suggest a false memory without intending to.

  28. Reality: "Doctors should be aware that patients are susceptible to subtle suggestions and reinforcements whether these communications are intended or unintended." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  29. Myth: The great detail of "recovered memories" is evidence for their historical accuracy.

  30. Reality: People who claim they were abducted by aliens have detailed "memories" of the aliens, the ships, and the experiments which were supposedly performed by the aliens. Is this evidence that aliens are actually kidnapping people?
     

  31. Myth: The emotional intensity of "recovered memories" is evidence for their historical accuracy.

  32. Reality: "Memories, however emotionally intense and significant to the individual, do not necessarily reflect actual events." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  33. Myth: The intensity of a person's belief in their memories is evidence for their historical accuracy.

  34. Reality: "The evidence shows that memories of events which did not in fact occur may develop and be held with total conviction." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  35. Myth: Many people claim to have been violently abused for many years during childhood but to have repressed all memory of the abuse after each and every incident so that neither they nor anyone else was aware of it the rest of the time, then to have recovered the memories years or decades later, so massive repression and recovery of memories of chronic, violent abuse must really happen.

  36. Reality: Many people claim to have been abducted by aliens; does this mean that alien abduction really happens? Clearly, the fact that many people believe something doesn't prove that it actually happened to them.
     

  37. Myth: "Age regression," with or without the use of hypnosis, enables people to accurately relive past events as they happened.

  38. Reality: "It is the consensus of the Panel that hypnotic age regression is the subjective reliving of earlier experiences as though they were real--which does not necessarily replicate earlier events." -- American Medical Association Council on Scientific Affairs, "Scientific Status of Refreshing Recollection by the Use of Hypnosis" (Journal of the American Medical Association, 5 April 1985, Vol. 253, No. 13, pp. 1918-1923)

    "Techniques of regression therapy including 'age regression' and hypnotic regression are of unproven effectiveness." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  39. Myth: False memories don't exist.

  40. Reality: "The evidence shows that memories of events which did not in fact occur may develop and be held with total conviction." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  41. Myth: False memories only develop in people who are in one-on-one or group therapy or who undergo hypnosis.

  42. Reality: "[I]t is important to emphasise that distortion of memory may occur in any therapeutic situation." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997

    "Leslie Hannegan provides an example of a self-made repressed memory survivor who convinced herself, largely without a therapist's assistance, that her father had committed incest on her. She read Christian Survivor self-help books and interpreted sleep paralysis and panic-induced choking as evidence of returning memories. Later, Hannegan promptly dumped a therapist who expressed skepticism about whether her father had really committed these acts." -- Mark Pendergrast, Victims of Memory, p. 316 (read Leslie Hannegan's story on this site!)
     

  43. Myth: "If your client says she wasn't abused but you suspect that she was, ask again later." -- The Courage to Heal, First Edition, p.350

  44. Reality: "Memories can be significantly influenced by questioning, especially in young children. Memories also can be significantly influenced by a trusted person (e.g., therapist, parent involved in a custody dispute) who suggests abuse as an explanation for symptoms/problems, despite initial lack of memory of such abuse. It has also been shown that repeated questioning may lead individuals to report "memories" of events that never occurred. " -- The American Psychiatric Association Board Statement On Memories Of Sexual Abuse
     

  45. Myth: A person would have to be mentally ill to have false memories of events which didn't occur.

  46. Reality: This claim is sometimes used by an unscrupulous therapist to coerce a client who has developed bizarre, improbable memories (such as satanic ritual abuse) and is beginning to doubt their accuracy and the reliability of the therapy techniques which produced them. The client is discouraged from questioning the veracity of "recovered memories" by the implicit threat of being labeled insane if the "recovered memories" turn out to be false. Note the similarity to cults which maintain control of their members by warning them of dire consequences or insanity if the members leave or question the cult's beliefs.

    However, psychological research studies by Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D. have shown that under the right circumstances, false memories can be planted in some people. This is even true for false memories of events that would have been upsetting if they had actually occurred; her classic "Lost in the Mall" study demonstrated how easy it was to plant false memories of having been lost in a shopping mall during childhood among people who had never in fact had such an experience. This research was performed on populations of normal individuals who had not been selected for the presence of mental illness.
     

  47. Myth: Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD)) cannot be induced by therapeutic influence.

  48. Reality: "There seems little doubt that some cases of multiple personality are iatrogenically determined and psychiatrists should be careful to ensure that they do not directly encourage patients to develop 'alters' in whom they may invest aspects of their personality, fantasies or current problems. Any spontaneous presentation of dissociative identity disorder should be sympathetically considered but should not be made the subject of undue attention, nor should the patient be encouraged to develop further 'multiples'." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  49. Myth: Dissociative Identity Disorder cannot be faked.

  50. Reality: "There are no tests or set of procedures that invariably distinguish Dissociative Amnesia from Malingering ..." -- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, p. 480
    [Note: "Malingering" means faking disease symptoms for external gain.]
     

  51. Myth: There is a consensus that Dissociative Identity Disorder is a naturally occurring disorder which occurs independent of therapeutic influence.

  52. Reality: "Slater & Roth (1969) stated unequivocally: 'It seems that these multiple personalities are always artificial productions, the product of the medical attention that they arouse'. Many specialists still doubt the existence of multiple personality disorder as a distinctive psychiatric condition and consider it to be iatrogenic in origin (Piper, 1994; Merskey, 1995). It does appear that diagnoses cluster in a few specialist clinics and this suggests that bias may be operating in referral or practice. Video-tapes and clinical demonstrations of the condition suggest that it arises in suggestible individuals as a consequence of the expectations of the therapist. As in hypnotic states, it is not easy to differentiate between involuntary and simulated states. There is evidence that attention (particularly from therapists) perpetuates the dissociation and leads to the creation of ever more 'alter personalities' (Merskey, 1995)." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 302
    [Note: "Iatrogenic" means "caused by the doctor."]
     

  53. Myth: "Sure, medicines and surgery can kill people, but a therapist could never hurt someone just by talking to them."

  54. Reality: Bad therapy kills. More frequently, it fails to address a person's real problems, wastes their time, money, and emotional energy on ineffective, counterproductive, and dangerous techniques, breeds dependency, disrupts a person's relationships with trusted others in their lives, and drives a person into depression or suicide attempts. If you don't think irresponsible or incompetent therapy can be dangerous, read the retractor and family stories on this site. Then, read Beware the Talking Cure by Terence Campbell, Ph.D. for more examples of tragedies of therapeutic incompetence and irresponsibility.
     

  55. Myth: A therapist of a client alleging abuse should not meet with the client's family members.

  56. Reality: "Once the accusation is taken outside the consulting room, especially if any question of confrontation or public accusation arises, there can rarely be any justification for refusal to allow a member of the therapeutic team to meet family members." -- Royal College of Psychiatrists, U.K., 1997
     

  57. Myth: Therapists can interpret the meaning of dreams.

  58. Reality: "There is no evidence that dreams are a 'royal road' to historical accuracy and interpretations usually reflect the training and personal convictions of the therapist. It is frequently observed that patients dream to fit the theoretical model of their therapist. Since dreams are generally agreed to contain a residue of the day's events, it is at least plausible that, if the day is spent in an attempt to prove or disprove previous sexual abuse, one's dreams may come to reflect that preoccupation." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 301

    "In formulating their symbolic interpretations, analytic therapists do not rely on any body of scientific research to verify them; such research simply does not exist. More than anything else, symbolic interpretations reflect the personal idiosyncrasies of the therapists who indulge in them. Ten different analytic therapists could make ten different interpretations of the same dream, thought or fantasy." -- Terence Campbell, Ph.D., Beware the Talking Cure, p. 70
     

  59. Myth: A therapist must "Be willing to believe the unbelievable." -- The Courage to Heal, First Edition, p.345

  60. Reality: "There is no reliable means of distinguishing a true memory from an illusory one other than by external confirmation. There are, of course, some memories so bizarre or impossible that they are not credible. If something could not happen, it did not happen." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 304
     

  61. Myth: 'Recovered memories' are just like other memories.

  62. Reality: "The common experience of remembering is for a memory to return suddenly and completely. 'Recovered memories' differ from other forms of forgotten and remembered events in being built-up over time. Close examination reveals that they resemble narrative rather than memory, with more being added at each attempt at recall, often becoming increasingly elaborate and bizarre. Accounts of recovered memories may sometimes be vague and imprecise and accusations are often based on innuendo. It often seems that the key element is a firmly held belief rather than a clear memory." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 304
     

  63. Myth: It's the unlicensed therapists who are causing all the problems.

  64. Reality: This is a self-serving rationalization promoted by psychiatrists and psychologists who don't wish to acknowledge the damage that their own colleagues are doing, and it's completely false. Licensed psychiatrists and psychologists have led the way in spreading the scientifically groundless misinformation upon which the memory recovery movement is founded and in rushing those misconceptions into practice in the therapy room without prior testing for safety, effectiveness, and validity. For well-documented examples, see the newspaper articles on this site. The scandal is not that unlicensed therapists use dangerous, irresponsible techniques; one would expect that. The scandal is that licensed therapists often use exactly the same techniques, and that this situation is tacitly condoned by the failure of professional licensing boards to act!
     

  65. Myth: Satanic cults exist.

  66. Reality: People who have undergone so-called "memory recovery therapy" frequently "recover memories" of violent and sexual abuse by large, organized satanic cults which supposedly meet regularly in secret to conduct rituals that include human sacrifice, cannibalism, and sexual abuse. Allegations of satanic ritual abuse were made in 18% of the over 20,000 cases reported to the False Memory Syndrome Foundation. That's over 3600 separate allegations of satanic ritual abuse among this sample group alone.

    However, despite the large number of accusations which have been made by people in "memory recovery therapy," no evidence has ever been found that such cults exist. A study done for the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect entitled Characteristics and Sources of Allegations of Ritualistic Child Abuse surveyed over 12,000 psychologists, social workers, and law enforcement officials and failed to find a single credible or confirmed allegation of abuse by organized satanic cults. The FBI's expert on cult crimes, Kenneth Lanning, has concluded that "The most significant crimes being alleged that do not seem to be true are the human sacrifice and cannibalism by organized satanic cults." (For more detail on this myth, see The Myth of Satanic Ritual Abuse on this site.)
     

  67. Myth: State professional licensing boards are protecting the public.

  68. Reality: Judged by their repeated failure to take disciplinary action in case after case of blatant malpractice, the licensing boards as a group appear to be far more concerned with protecting their colleagues' careers and their professions' reputations than with protecting the public from malpractice. Licensing boards have taken action (far too late) in a few cases where highly publicized, massive civil suit settlements and awards made the public aware of blatant, repeated malpractice. In that light, these cases almost appear to be symbolic efforts to preserve the appearance that the licensing boards are prosecuting offenders and protecting the public, while in reality a far greater number of unpublicized cases are going without any action.
     

  69. Myth: A person would never say he or she had been raped or abused unless it is true.

  70. Reality: Not all accusations are true. It is certainly true that historically, actual victims of physical and sexual abuse faced much social denial and disbelief, and that America's increased willingness to acknowledge, stop, and prevent real abuse is a positive development. However, there are also many documented cases of allegations which have been proven false, and it is important to keep that problem in mind as well.

    • Both men and women can suffer from mental illnesses and have delusional beliefs; an accuser may be mentally ill and have a poor grasp of reality. (By the same token, mentally ill people can be actual victims of abuse just like anyone else, so their allegations should not be dismissed out of hand simply because of their condition.)
    • Both men and women can be misled by incompetent, ignorant, irresponsible, or mentally ill therapists into developing false memories of abuse or incest which never occurred; an accuser may be the victim of bad therapy and genuinely believe that what they are saying is true when it is demonstrably false. Read the case of  Beth Rutherford who came to believe during therapy that her father had made her pregnant and that she'd had two abortions; later medical examinations showed that she was a virgin and that her father had had a vasectomy!
    • False memories and false accusations can also develop in people who have not entered formal therapy but who have read suggestive literature like The Courage to Heal, engaged in self-hypnosis, automatic writing, literal dream interpretation, or other so-called "memory recovery" techniques, or attended highly-charged "support group" meetings.
    • Both men and women sometimes knowingly make false accusations of crimes which never took place. For example, false abuse accusations are a disturbingly common tactic in contested custody cases.

     
  71. Myth: Therapy clients with no memory of abuse may safely be placed into support groups together with known abuse survivors.

  72. Reality: "Survivors' groups are often supportive, helpful in restoring self-esteem and in reducing shame and isolation (Herman, 1987). However, the practice of mixing those who clearly remember abuse with those who are suspected by the therapist of having repressed their memories of abuse (Herman & Schtzow, 1987) has been strongly criticised (Ofshe & Watters, 1994; Pope & Hudson, 1995; Pendergrast, 1995) because of the risk of suggestion and contagion among group members." -- Sydney Brandon, M.D., et al, "Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse: implications for clinical practice," British Journal of Psychiatry, April 98, p. 301
     

  73. Myth: Every person has an 'inner child.'

  74. Reality: "As a result of its relentless promotion through books, lectures, and tapes, the 'inner child' is now a fact of life to countless Americans. They talk to it, write about it, interpret its dreams, indulge it in carefully constructed fantasies, and most of all, they try to fix it. 'Healing the inner child within' has become the goal of therapists across the country, and a handy, highly publicized framework from which to launch their clinical practices and workshops. In the past month alone, I have received brochures advertising workshops entitled 'Healing the Child Within,' 'Learning to Nurture Your Inner Child,' and 'A Healing Workshop for Adult Children of Affluent Parents.' The trauma of wealth?

    So, what's the problem? There is no inner child! It is a metaphor, a representation, a suggested way of thinking about your experience; it is not the experience itself. But, for some people, the suggestion has transcended mere metaphor and become a reality. When I have publicly discussed it as an illusion, I've seen these people become angry and defensive, as if I've just called into question the legitimacy of one of their most precious beliefs. To be truthful, I have. Isn't it interesting, though, how so arbitrary a perspective can assume such personal importance and intensity?" -- Michael Yapko, Ph.D., in Suggestions of Abuse: True and False Memories of Childhood Sexual Trauma , pp. 94-95
     

  75. Myth: Studies of the hippocampus (a part of the brain) show physical evidence for the theory of massive repression and later recovery of memories.

  76. Reality: "The business about the branches that connect neurons in the hippocampus shriveling up from stress and later recovering has provided an irresistible metaphor to some folks who believe in 'recovered memory.' The term describes a controversial scenario in which victims of horrendous traumas utterly repress all memory of the experience, only to recover it years or decades later. Lives have been destroyed over this incendiary issue-- either those of the trauma victims (in one interpretation), left to wait decades for justice because of the workings of memory, or, in the counterview, those of the victims of false accusations, consumed in this season's witch-hunt. Civil war has nearly broken out among neuropsychologists over this issue, so let me tread lightly here--I will simply say that I have seen no scientific evidence for how such recovered memories might work, no supported cases of it documented to be legitimate in a way that should satisfy a rigorous scientist, and plenty of scientific explanations for why various claims have not been legitimate." -- Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Professor of Neuroscience at Stanford University, "Stress and Your Shrinking Brain," March 1999 Discover, p. 122.

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